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Range Rovers Wiki & Owners Guide

An Introduction To Range Rovers


When the first Range Rover was produced in 1970, it started an entirely new trend in four wheel drive vehicles. It blended supremacy over all competitors off road with comfort and convenience on road. With a production run lasting twenty six years, the original Range Rover "Classic" was a unique vehicle, and the only one ever to be exhibited in the Louvre as a work of art. Land Rover Owner International Magazine voted it as the best Land Rover ever in 1996. One judge called it the best vehicle built by anyone, anywhere, ever. Successive newer models have remained the benchmark against which other SUVs compete. Although no longer exhibited in the Louvre, Range Rovers retain the title of King Off The Road while steadily improving on-road performance and refinement.


The success of the original Range Rover was due mainly to its inspired mechanical design which gave it the best performance of any 4X4 both on and off the pavement. While many think of it as just a luxury version of the generic 4X4, its real secret was the extraordinary engineering innovation hidden behind the wood and leather trimmings. It possessed a massive box section ladder frame, prodigious ground clearance, a smooth V8 with good low end torque, and last but definitely not least, a brilliant suspension design that rival manufacturers have still not equaled. The result was outstanding all-terrain traction as well as the smoothest ride of any 4x4. Later Range Rover models remain true to the original concept using fundamental design innovations that keep them far ahead of competitors in their enormous breadth of on and off road capability.


In the 1980's and 90's while the original Classic Range Rover was still in production, other manufacturers scrambled to catch up. But refinements to the original model still kept it way ahead of the field. Improvements included suspension re-tuning, an automatic viscous locking center differential, the first ABS system designed for off-road use, and electronic traction control. Just when others started copying the coil suspension, it was replaced with electronically controlled air-adjustable suspension which could be raised and lowered over a 5 inch range.

In 1994 a completely new model replaced the Classic. The Mark II/P38's streamlined body shape incorporated even more luxury with sophisticated computer controlled functions. An improved air suspension, stronger chassis, manual control of low range ratios, more ground clearance, improved dust sealing, and a host of other new features assured retention of its place as "King Of The Road".

In 2002, an even more drastic redesign was completed, using a much stronger monocoque body and chassis with independent suspension, both concepts were hitherto a heresy in the 4X4 world. The Range Rover Mark III/L322  had improved ground clearance, even more wheel travel, and cross-linked air springs for more traction and a softer ride off road. A BMW V8, shift-on-the-move transfer case, and many other refinements improved both on and off-road manners.

A few short years later the "Sport"/L320 was added in 2005 alongside the "Real" Range Rover, with a 400 HP supercharged option that dispelled any remaining myths about Range Rovers not keeping up with other SUVs on the pavement. True to tradition, it incorporates such an array of off-road features and abilities that it leaves its competitors in the dust or in the ditch. 

So what does the future hold for Range Rover? Each successive update has assured that the Range Rover remains the world's most capable vehicle. Although its luxury features are famous and its on-road performance is continuously improving, the thing that distinguishes Range Rovers from other luxury SUV's in today's crowded market is their supreme off-road ability. The unparalleled breadth of capability means it is never out of place whether at the most exclusive city club or in the roughest back country terrain. With the Evoque/L538 opening up a new chapter for lightweight, fuel efficient models and the Mark IV/L405 being rolled out for the 2013 model year there seems to be no limits to Range Rover's technological and design advancement.


The Range Rover design concept was one of excellent performance on the pavement and superlative performance off road. In 1970, its acceleration and speed were superior to many conventional cars. As late as 1985, a diesel-powered Range Rover "Bullet" Record Breaker broke 27 diesel vehicle speed records, averaging over 100 mph for 24 hours. By the 1990's, although speed and acceleration had improved, they were not exactly a selling point, as competitors introduced more spritely SUVs that could leave a Range Rover standing at the traffic lights. Off the pavement, however, Range Rover performance has always been nothing short of staggering, and is an eye opener to anyone not familiar with the vehicle. It runs circles around virtually any other 4X4, including many modified ones. Over the years it has maintained or even increased this edge, being one of the few actually designed from the ground up for serious off-road ability. Other manufacturers, knowing that most owners never take their vehicles off the pavement, developed low slung SUVs and stiff suspensions tuned for car-like handling. The Range Rover retained its soft long travel suspension, and even increased available ground clearance with adjustable air suspension.

The design of the Range Rover Mark II/P38 was intended to improve pavement performance and handling to attract buyers from luxury car marques, while retaining supreme off road performance. A new streamlined shape allowed faster, quieter highway cruising, and lighter axles with suspension refinements improved handling. Several new off-road features were also added and magazine comparison tests uniformly acclaimed its continued effortless superiority in that arena.

The even more radical redesign of the Mark III/L322 Range Rover further improved off-road capability while endowing the vehicle with truly car-like on-road manners. Independent suspension and a monocoque body gave the needed on-road refinement, while increased ground clearance, wheel travel, and innovative cross-linked air springs vaulted the new vehicle ahead of its off-road competitors yet again. In the July 2002 Land Rover Owner International magazine "off-road-only" comparison test report shortly after its introduction, the new Range Rover bested even the formidable Land Rover Defender in off-road performance.

With the addition of the Sport/L320 to the Range Rover stable the evolution of performance has continued. As the name suggests, this model emphasizes sporty performance, but off-road prowess has by no means been neglected. With its reduced bulk and 300 or 400 horsepower engine choices, it is no slug on the tarmac. Off the pavement, it can run circles around any other "Sporty" utility from Mercedes, Porsche and the like. The sophisticated Terrain Response system first introduced in the Discovery 3/LR3 is included, along with optional locking rear diff, 4-wheel traction control, Hill Descent Control, and a suspension that can be lifted in extremes 3 inches above the "High" position normally used off road.


Range Rovers have always been distinguished by innovation in suspension design. The Classic Range Rover was able to use exceptionally soft springs, while retaining a 1600 lb payload capacity, by virtue of the Boge self-leveling strut fitted to the central A-frame link on the rear axle. This is, in effect, a variable rate self-adjusting air spring which provides a restoring force on the center of the axle to compensate for load, allowing very low spring rates to be used at the road wheels. This results in maximum possible traction on uneven terrain.

Why does a soft suspension give better traction? This is a secret that other 4x4 manufacturers and aftermarket suspension builders have apparently never learned. When a wheel droops even an inch or two on uneven terrain, that wheel is "unloaded", i.e. its ground contact force is reduced, in direct proportion to the stiffness of the spring and anti-roll bar. Any loss in ground contact force reduces available traction at the wheel in question. With an open differential on the axle, traction is lost at both wheels simultaneously.

Conventional and "lifted" 4x4s overwhelmingly use leaf springs or stiff coils with anti-sway bars tuned for flat high speed cornering on pavement or supposed "heavy duty" use off-road. Aftermarket "upgrades" invariably include even stiffer springs, shocks, bushings and/or anti-sway bars. The net effect is a very stiff suspension that not only provides less maximum wheel travel, resulting in wheels lifting off the ground in very uneven terrain, but much reduced traction even in mild off-road situations requiring only modest vertical wheel movements. This is why the conventional dogma dictates that serious off-road vehicles must use "lockers" on the differentials to maintain traction. Lockers force both wheels to rotate at equal speed, transferring all the torque to whichever side has the grip. They therefore greatly increase stress on the drivetrain components, and have adverse side effects on steering control. On newer Range Rovers, any lost traction is restored through a sophisticated system of electronic traction control. This senses when a rear wheel starts slipping and pulses its brake, effectively transferring half the engine torque to the opposite, gripping wheel. The combination of soft suspension and electronic traction control is formidable. The system gently equalizes torque distribution to the two wheels, whereas the locker can suddenly transfer 100% torque to one wheel, breaking parts with notorious regularity.

The redesigned Range Rover Mark II/P38's electronically controlled airbag suspension is another innovation in 4x4 underpinnings. Although slightly firmer than the early coil spring design, it is plenty soft enough to cause complaints about body roll by automotive journalists. The same journalists, however, rave over its ability to soak up gaping holes in the road like a Mercedes negotiating speed bumps. Axle articulation in stock form easily outclasses other SUVs. The ability to raise the vehicle 1.6 inches above normal provides more clearance for off road use, while conversely the body is lowered an inch in highway mode to stabilize the vehicle. When it becomes high centered, the suspension hoists itself above even the "high" setting to try and break it loose. The maintenance of constant height under all load conditions is a boon for off road use when the vehicle is often heavily loaded. No sagging in the rear, or reduction in clearance. Also, the progressive nature of air springs reduces the chance of "bottoming out" when hitting a bump too fast.

In the Range Rover Mark III/L322, the designers debunked the traditional assumption that independent suspension is unsuitable for serious off-road use. Careful design resulted in stupendous vertical wheel travel that easily bests any other production vehicle, 10.75 inches in the front and 13 inches in the rear. Off-road, the air suspension is programmed to operate like a beam axle, so that a rising wheel forces its opposite member downwards, maintaining clearance. This is achieved by opening valves that link each left air spring to its right hand opposite number, so that upon compression of, say, the left spring, its air is forced into the right one. This also has the effect of reducing the effective spring rate to near zero, hugely increasing the available ground contact force and traction on the drooping wheel. A third benefit is the much softer ride achieved off road, allowing faster progress and lighter impact. A full 2-inch lift in off-road mode gives 11 inches of clearance and reduces the spring rates.

Nobody can accuse the Range Rover Sport of having a soft suspension, but it makes up for it in sophistication, as an off-road drive of it shows. The traction control, center and rear diff locks, hill descent control and Terrain Response system make it hard to stop. Its suspension, like the P38's, has the "extended profile" feature that senses when the vehicle is grounded, and raises the suspension another 1.5 inches. Beyond that, the driver can raise it another 1.5 inches by holding the "up" button.

For additional information on Range Rover suspensions and modifications please see our Suspension Details Page.


Innovative suspension is not the only secret behind the Range Rover's legendary off-road prowess. The solid construction of the 14 gauge box section chassis, the axle housings and linkages, and other underbody parts means the Range Rover will withstand exceptionally severe off-road treatment. The transfer case uses relatively high numerical gear ratios, enabling the use of lower numerical ratio gears in the axle differentials for extra strength. High underbody clearance provides extreme breakover angles. If the vehicle does become high centered, the electronic air suspension on later models senses this condition and raises the body even higher to set it free.

Drive along behind most 4x4s and you will see the rear shock mounts hanging vulnerably well below the axle, in a perfect position to be snagged on rocks. The Range Rover's shock mounts are positioned so as not to cause such problems. Similarly, on most 4x4's the rear differential is in the middle of the axle while the front diff is off to one side, effectively reducing usable clearance over rocks and ridges since one or other differential, or a shock mount, is almost certain to hit something. The Range Rover's differentials are both positioned in line, offset from the center, so that foot-high obstacles can pass straight under the vehicle.

Many other features distinguish Range Rovers, old and new, from SUVs designed mainly for looks. Mud deflectors are fitted to all the brakes, and mud flaps are standard on many models. The V8 has an exceptionally flat torque curve from very low speeds, giving good low speed crawling power, and the throttle has unusually long travel, for delicate adjustment in off-road situations. The handbrake operates on the driveshaft and locks all four wheels which is vital in tricky off road maneuvering so you can get out and take a look at your predicament. The high seating position and short hood make it possible to see obstacles on the ground very close to the front of the vehicle. The transfer case differential automatically and progressively locks when it senses a difference in front-to-rear axle speed indicating slippage of a wheel.

On the Mark II/P38, the automatic transmission can be locked in any gear while in low range and shifting between high and low range is simplified by a new "H" gate single shifter design. Ground clearance is increased under the differentials, components are better tucked up between the chassis rails to give a cleaner underbody, and the air intake is further raised for a dry air supply when fording. The V8 engine has undergone testing in extreme off-camber positions for extended periods, and prototypes driven for hours at high speed behind dust-making machines on dirt roads to test the filtration system which is designed to eliminate the ingress of dust into the cabin. The chassis is substantially strengthened, including radius arm mountings which are much less vulnerable to being knocked out of alignment by a hit from a rock. The fuel tank is in a more protected position and is designed to deform substantially under impact from the ground, without stopping the fuel pump from operating.

On the Mark III/L322, yet more off-road features were added. Wheel travel was increased to staggering levels, combined with the innovative cross coupling of the air suspension. A cleaner underbody with 11 inches of clearance in high profile has Kevlar protection and very few vulnerable protruding parts; even the normally vulnerable exhaust outlets are tucked up under the rear of the vehicle so they are flush with the rest of the body. Other improvements include increased approach and departure angles, more ground clearance, a torque sensing center differential, a shift-on-the move transfer case, a dual-program throttle tuned for longer travel in low range, power folding mirrors to avoid trees and other obstacles, a heavy duty front recovery loop, Land Rover's patented Hill Descent Control, and All-terrain Dynamic Stability Control to prevent skids and slides on slippery surfaces. In combination with the clean underbody and excellent ground clearance, all these features make the Mark III quite unperturbed when the terrain turns awful. Most of these features are incorporated into the Range Rover Sport as well. A Range Rover is also one of the very few production vehicles that you can order with a winch.

JD Power recently reported that the average car purchase through a dealership, after you have decided to buy, takes 6.5 hours. During this time you are engaged in a frustrating, high-stress, adversarial game with the entire sales team in which the odds are stacked heavily against you. Aside from whatever 6 hours of your time is worth, you are also paying the salaries and overhead of the salesman, sales manager, and finance manager  During this time period they are playing the "good cop, bad cop" game while each tries to outwit you in order to maximize their commissions. They practice this game all day every day, whereas you do it at most once a year. Guess which side is more likely to win this dance of the dollars. Car buyers are increasingly growing weary of this outdated process and are letting a broker handle the headaches.


In 2010 at least 17% or new car sales were handled by a broker. A broker is a professional buyer who works for you to get you the best deal available. He shops the entire state or country, using fleet buying power and established relationships with dealership management, to find the exact vehicle you choose. After negotiating the best possible price, he gets back to you to describe the vehicle, the negotiated price, and the best financing. If you accept what he has arranged, he has the vehicle transported to the location of your choice, prepares title and sales paperwork and arranges to dispose of your old car if you so wish.  He also gets the loan or lease approved and prepared all without you having to leave the comfort of your home.  Once delivered the paperwork takes approximately 15 minutes, and you have your new vehicle.

Once people discover that they never need to deal with a car salesman again, they rarely go back. Using a good broker saves hours of your time, while using his buying power to pay less without haggling. More and more buyers are realizing they can bypass the whole dealer experience. With more and more new car transactions being completed this way the trend is rapidly extending into used car buying where the savings are usually even greater due to the traditionally high markups in the used market.


What about after sales service and warranties? All vehicles bought through a broker come with full factory warranty, and can be serviced at any Land Rover dealer. If you are worried that your local dealer may have misgivings servicing a Range Rover bought elsewhere or through a broker, dismiss those worries! Dealers make most of their money from their service departments, through the virtual monopoly they have during the new car warranty period. This is especially true of Land Rover dealers, since statistically, your Rover will spend more time in the shop than any other brand of vehicle. If you have bought a car from a dealer, you will have noticed how rapidly they forget that you loyally bought from them.

What incentive does a broker have to help me? Remember, the dealer and their commissioned sales staff have the strongest possible incentive to charge you the maximum price they can. In contrast, buyers' brokers work for you. They know they will only get your business if they save you money and time. They are not paid on commission so they have no incentive to get a high price. They have every incentive to get you the best deal and service so you will return next time you buy a car.

Aren't I just paying the broker the commission the dealer would otherwise get? No. You pay the broker a fee for his time and services -- usually only a fraction of what you save on the deal compared with doing your own bargaining. Brokers get far lower prices than you can, not just because of purchase volume but because the dealer does not have to pay its usual sales expenses like commissions to salesmen and finance employees.

What about the online quoting and car buying services? The ubiquitous online car quoting and buying services (Edmunds, Cars.com, Autobytel, etc) are simply advertising and sales lead generating services for the dealer networks. When you fill in one of their online forms, you become a "prospect", and your information is sent to a local dealer, who pays them for the "lead". A dealer salesperson then contacts you and begins the usual haggling process. The pricing information you obtain from such services is full of disclaimers. The dealer has no obligation or incentive to meet the quoting service's "target price". An auto broker is entirely different by working for you instead of the dealer network and using volume buying power to get your car from wherever in the region or country the best deal can be had.


Carsmith Motors is the established premier auto broker in the Western US. They are unique as an auto broker in providing car-buying services for people in the market for both New and Pre-Owned Vehicles in the Western US. Carsmith has such high volume buying power that they can get you true wholesale prices on both new and late model used Rovers, passing the savings along to you. Let them know what you are looking for in your next Range Rover whether new or used. They will literally “shop” your new car request around to hundreds of dealers across the United States to find you the best possible price, and get back to you within 24 hours. Every new vehicle purchased through Carsmith Motors includes all manufacturer's warranties, rebates, incentives and special financing.

Carsmith Motors have kindly offered to make special discount available to RangeRovers.net readers, so when you call them please tell them you were referred by RangeRovers.net. You can contact their Owner Dave Marcus directly at (650) 888-7108.


Best in Fleet has some of the most experienced staff in the auto broker business. Just from talking to them you can tell they love what they do, and care about the people they do it for. They can get you any make or model of vehicle at dramatic savings, but they specialize in Land Rovers and Range Rovers. They do all in their power to give you "The Best Way to Buy A New Car”.

Best in Fleet's huge fleet buying power and statewide buying connections get you the exact vehicle you decide on for a true fleet price. Then, they set up the financing or lease for you, sell your old car for you if you like, and deliver your new one by flatbed trailer or professional driver, anywhere in California. The paperwork takes about 7 minutes, and you’re ready to go! And, they can handle all the details over the phone. You need never leave your home or office. They can also install aftermarket options, winches, racks, or other expedition equipment before delivery.

John Oler can be reached directly at (559) 237-0752. He will be waiting to help you find the exact Range Rover you want at the lowest possible price. You can also visit their website at www.bestinfleet.com. Best in Fleet has kindly offered to help sponsor this site, so please tell them you were referred by RangeRovers.net.


New-Car-Deals.co.uk is now one of the leading UK and European suppliers of new vehicles, with over 2,500 models and discounts up to 35%. Their expertise and buying power mean you not only save thousands of £££ but get an earlier delivery date compared to the local dealer. Range Rovers are one of their specialties and they now have a special page entitled Land-Rover-Deals.com. At last check, their 2010 Sport price was £7,000 below list. With a great  track record, New-Car-Deals is in for the long haul, and pride themselves on service, price, lead time and personal communication. They go out of their way to ensure the price and date they quote can be relied on.

If you live in the UK, New-Car-Deals.co.uk will save you thousands on both UK supplied vehicles and European imports. All Land Rovers they supply are new UK spec RHD vehicles, with UK manuals and service/warranty books. Imported vehicles come with a Certificate of Conformity issued by Land Rover UK, and are identical in every respect to those from your local Land Rover dealership in the UK or Ireland. The only difference is the amount of money you are saving. If you live in Europe, similar savings are available to you through their network of continental dealers.

New-Car-Deals.co.uk is also a distributor for alloy wheels and body styling by Vemiri, so they can customise your new Rover as well. Visit their website at New-Car-Deals.co.uk, or their Land Rover specialty page at Land-Rover-Deals.com, or give them a call on 0870 360 5907. New-Car-Deals.co.uk has kindly offered to help sponsor RangeRovers.net, so please tell them you were referred by RangeRovers.net.

This page is provided as a no charge service to our readers who are looking for their perfect Range Rover. Over 10,000 people visit RangeRovers.net every day. This page alone receives over 250 visitors a day from people specifically shopping for used Range Rovers.  

If you have a Range Rover you are thinking of selling, pleaseemail us to place a listing here.

Ads may contain up to three photos for $25US. When sending photos please restrict them to under 100KB each in .jpg format. If you would like more than 3 photos in the ad you can have them placed for an additional $5 each. Your listing will be placed once we receive confirmation of your payment.

2001 RANGE ROVER Holland & Holland Edition

For Sale: Asking 9,500

-- The car has 83K miles on it.
-- All engine gaskets are recently replaced.
-- New radiator, New hoses, New Thermostat.
-- New water Pump, New Fan clutch assembly.
-- New sensors, New fan shroud.
-- 4 Brand new EAS air bags, New Battery.
-- Transmission shifts smooth as new.
-- Everything electrical works.
-- No dash lights on.

Call Tony at 702-556-6459
for complete info and more pictures.












For Sale: $7,890

-- Well maintained classic RR - Long-wheel-base version means lots of room inside.
-- Last production year of the original Range Rover Classic, a true adventure machine..
-- 155,000 miles
-- Fully loaded with factory options for model year, plus roof rack, brush guard, Hella lights, running boards.
-- California car - avoided rust by staying in Los Angeles its entire life.
-- Engine was rebuilt at 86k miles, with a newer 4.6 liter block. 
This eliminated the detached-cylinder-liner problem that the original 4.2 liter engines on LWB models are known for. It also added power.
-- Replaced various parts in recent years: radiator, alternator, steering pump, starter, and (of course) brakes. Installed Old Man Emu shocks.
-- Currently located at friend's showroom in Southern Oregon.
-- See album here

Respond to: [email protected]
or call Lucas at (541) 535-1775












2005 Range Rover HSE - 78,000 miles

$19,500 (South Florida)


-- Giverny Green exterior, Aspen/Ivory interior
-- V8, 4.4 Liter Engine
-- 5-Speed Commandshift Automatic Transmission
-- Clear title, METICULOUSLY maintained
-- All work done by LR dealer or by LR suggested person
-- Brand new suspension
-- Tinted windows
-- Cold weather package (heated seats, heated steering wheel, etc.)

Please contact:
Michael Knaub (717) 880-8835
[email protected]













1999 Range Rover Callaway edition in Epsom Green color

$6,900 NYC(Brooklyn)

Though the vehicle has @ 180k miles on it, I have taken great care of it over the years, and invested a great deal in replacing worn parts.

Some of the customizations / improvements I have made:
-- Old Man EMU spring kit & shock absorber suspension.
-- Nitto Terra Grappler oversized offroad / all-terrain tires under 10k miles wear.
-- New custom headliner replacement 6 months ago.

I have replaced: transfer box, transmission, u-joints fore & aft, front driveshaft, front & rear differentials, radiator, head gasket, valve cover gasket, fuel injectors (ford racing injectors), oil pump, fuel pump, brake master cylinder, climate control fans, and lots of little things over the years.

There are a few cosmetic blemishes on the vehicle - a dent in the hood from when a piece of wire left on the highway caused the fan blades to break off and hit the hood (see picture), another dent just in front of the passenger side door, and various scratches and dings, though none that serious. I find these 'scars' enhance the overall appearance of the ruggedness of this vehicle.

Currently the a/c compressor works but needs servicing - probably needs gaskets replaced as coolant runs out over course of a summer. Heater works well.

This vehicle is sold AS-IS, no warranty implied or offered. 

Please contact:
Location: NYC (Brooklyn) E-mail: [email protected]















1993 Range Rover Classic LWB - 104,000 miles - SOLD


Alpine White / Brown Leather Interior.

I am offering for sale my 1993 Range Rover Classic LWB. My truck is fully optioned with cold A/C, power everything, working remote locks, power sunroof and 4.2 liter Rover V8 engine.

This Classic is originally from California, is very clean and shows to have been well-maintained throughout its life. I have performed a light restoration on this vehicle, and I have receipts totaling over $8,500 for work/parts that I have into it.

Among other improvements, my Range Rover features a brand new coil spring conversion with Bilstein shocks, new brake calipers (4), rotors, pads and wheel bearings, completely new exhaust system (including new catalytic converters and Magnaflow cat-back exhaust system, new tires, Hella H4 headlight conversion and new Hella Rallye 500 driving lights, complete engine tune up and new belts and hoses. The truck comes with much of its original documentation from when it was new as well as spare parts.

This is a great truck and the only reason I am parting with it is to focus on a new restoration project. Please feel free to contact me at [email protected] or (609) 923-3932 for additional pictures or more information.












2008 Range Rover HSE LUX - 66,200 miles

$39,500 (Little Rock, Arkansas)

Java Black / Tan interior.

This Range Rover HSE has been babied ...garaged and very well maintained. This Rover was one of the last built for the 2008 model year, thus many 2009 model upgrades/ improvements are in this vehicle. ALL factory maintenance has been performed at Land Rover Dealership. Full synthetic Mobile 1 has been used every 3,000 miles.

All new Michelin tires last year. All New brakes/ rotors. Factory DVD, RR roof rack and RR iPod/ iPhone integrated hookup. RR rubber floor mats and rear rubber mat.

The vehicle looks and drives like new. CarFax completely clean with all maintenance reflected and listed. Cooled/ heated 14-way adjustable front seats. Like new interior.