Range Rover III Development
Introduction: the Need for a New Model Photo: The RR III posing with the two previous designs
Dr Reitzle's Key Role (from official press photo)
Special thanks to Kevin Kelly for information on these pages
Introduction: The Need
BMW took over Land Rover in 1994, their top officials
soon recognized that a replacement for the then "new" Range Rover model
1995) would be needed in a few years time. The luxury SUV market was becoming
increasingly crowded, and the P38 was unlikely to enjoy
and successful production run achieved by
the original "Classic" model. Accordingly, in 1996 development was
begun on a replacement.
Dr Reitzle's Key Role
The new model was to be a "clean sheet" design which would once again place the Range Rover head-and-shoulders above the competition. The effort became a pet project of BMW's product development manager Dr Wolfgang Reitzle, who pushed hard for its development. We owe a lot to him as the new Range Rover's "godfather".
Official press photo: Dr Reitzle with the new RR.
later conceded that he has always had a special
affection for the
Range Rover and when BMW bought Rover (with Land Rover) he took a very
personal interest in the design of the new model, set from the
very beginning to stand well above the SUV that BMW developed at the
same time, the very
successful BMW X5. In 1999 Dr Reitzle left BMW and moved to Ford and
became president of its Premier Auto Group. By then the project was
basically complete, but 17
months later he
was able to help once
again in getting the new Range Rover into production when Ford took over Land Rover for $3bn in 2000.Unfortunatly Dr.Reitzle ("The Wolfman to his
friends) left Land Rover and the Ford Premier Auto Group in 2002 before
the new Range Rover went on sale (some sources say he was forced out
while others say he quit after Bill Ford told him he would be never be
Body and Interior Development
Veteran Land Rover designer Don Wyatt was mainly responsible for the body design concept, penning a bold, modern interpretation of the classic Range Rover theme. The key designer of the original Range Rover, Spen King, was also consulted. The resulting design was 9.3 in. longer, 2.6 in wider, and 1.8 in taller than its predecessor, on a wheelbase of 113.4 in. (a 5.3-in. increase). It retained all the traditional Range Rover body cues, such as the low waistline with high seating position, black pillars giving a floating roofline, castellated hood/bonnet, and tailgate. But the execution marked a return to the sharply drawn lines of the Classic Range Rover. Unlike the P38/4.0/4.6 model this Range Rover would never be mistaken for a Ford Explorer.
Breaking with tradition, a monocoque design was used, with an
integrated chassis. The resulting structure was over twice as stiff in
torsion than the one it replaced. Continuing Land Rover tradition,
however, was the use of aluminum on the hood and doors. In theory the
monocoque body and aluminum panels would save weight, but the new model
was actually considerably heavier than is predecessor, reflecting the
sturdiness of its construction.
The interior won all kinds of applause from the motoring
perhaps the best interior ever designed, taking cues from expensive
yachts. While the result was
slightly more spartan and Teutonic in appearance than the older models,
with wood somewhat less in evidence, it had a feeling of spaciousness,
luxury and panache, with much better ergonomics than the earlier,
notoriously quirky controls.
With the project under the direction of BMW, it was natural to share some of the mechanicals with BMW's X5 sport utility, then also under development. Both used the BMW 4.4 litre V8 engine, a modified version of that used in the 7-series sedans. The venerable 1960's-era pushrod Rover V8 was finally to be replaced. (As it reached the end of its long development history, it had acquired an enviable reputation for blown head gaskets and slipping cylinder liners).
In 1992, BMW had introduced a new line of aluminum block "Nikasil" V8 engines with the designation M60, using a Nickel and Silicone coating in the cylinder bores to prevent wear. Complaints soon came in from some US M60 owners that the engines had a rough idle, traced to high sulphur content in the gasoline -- especially in the south where Gulf of Mexico crude oil was used -- eating away the Nikasil coating. In 1996, the problem was solved with a new line of engines designated M62, replacing the problem coating with a heavy duty one known as "Alusil". This had been used in the BMW V12 (M70) engine since 1986 without any wear problems. Accordingly, by the time the M62 V8 was pressed into service in the new Range Rover, the bugs had long ago been worked out and Kevin has not heard of any premature wear problems either in BMWs or Range Rovers with the Alusil aluminum V8 engines.
Thus the BMW V8 was a
proven but state-of-the-art engine, complete with such features as
variable valve timing. For use in the Range Rover,
the tuning was adjusted
for the required low speed torque for off roading, and the sump was
strengthened considerably to allow for its use as a mount for the front
The four speed auto box was replaced with a 5-speed unit
incorporating BMW's convenient tiptronic manual override system. The
new electrically shifted chain driven transfer case allowed shifting
from hi to lo at up to 10 mph, and lo to high at up to 30 mph. It
incorporated a Torsen torque-sensing differential, with a mechanical
torque-apportioning mechanism offering more pro-active operation
than the viscous
locking differential used previously.
As radical as the adoption of a monocoque body was the use of
all-round independent suspension. Traditionalists
were worried this would mean compromising ground clearance and
the cross-coupled air springs made the suspension behave
much like a beam axle setup when off road. Articulation was far greater
than even that of the Classic. On-road, the independent
coupled with the new rack-and-pinon steering greatly improved handling
and precision. The resulting vehicle was generally agreed to possess
the widest range of capabilities ever seen, on and off road.
BMW announces purchase of Land Rover (along with Rover and MG cars) from British Aerospace on January 31st 1994. Land Rover completes a new $107 million assembly line for the Range Rover in building 38A on the Solihull site and begins selling the new 1995 model year "Range Rover P38" in Europe in the last quarter of the year. It is reported that the total investment in the development and production of the P38A project was approx. $450 million. In Europe the Range Rover was available with a BMW 2.5L Diesel Engine as well at the Land Rover 4.0L and 4.6L V8 engines
In the United States LRNA first sold the 1995 model year Range Rover P38 4.0 SE in March and the 1996 model year Range Rover P38 4.6 HSE was first sold a few months later in September 1995. BMW executive Wolfgang Reitzle (who joined BMW in 1976) was appointed chairman of the Rover group.
Development starts on the new Range Rover model. Also this year BMW introduces the M62 V8 with the improved Alusil coating solving earlier wear problems (see above)
Wolfgang Reitzle left Rover and returned to Germany where many said he was being groomed run BMW when current CEO Bernd Pischetsrieder (whose great-uncle Sir Alec Issigonis designed the Mini) decided to step down.
Development complete; Dr Reitzle leaves BMW. Most sources say that Dr. Reitzle quit BMW when the board did not appoint him CEO after they fired CEO Bernd Pischetsrieder. Dr. Reitzle was quickly hired by Ford to run the new Ford Premier Auto Group (PAG).
BMW announced that they were selling Land Rover to Ford and "selling" the money loosing Rover/MG group (not including Mini) to a British investment group called Phoenix Venture Holdings for ten British pounds (but also included a loan package worth over $800 and over $100 million in other payments). Land Rover became part of Ford's Premier Auto Group, under Wolfgang Reitzle. Contracts were set up between Ford and BMW for supply of the V8 engines for the Range Rover until 2005, to allow time for Ford to substitute a suitable powerplant of its own.
Production of the new Range Rover L322 began with volume production starting in December of 2001. All the new L322 Range Rovers were powered by BMW gas and diesel engines (the Range Rover P38 only had BMW engines in diesel models that were never imported to North America).
On February 9, 2002 the last production Range Rover P38 (a North American Spec. 4.6HSE) rolled off the Lode Lane assembly lone and drove along side the first production Range Rover L322 model to the Heritage Museum at Gaydon where they will both join other Land Rovers and Range Rovers in the permanent collection. The 2003 Range Rover made its official debut in the United States in June 2002 as a 2003 model. Unfortunately its main creator Dr.Reitzle left Land Rover and the Ford Premier Auto Group in 2002 before the new Range Rover went on sale.